Forestry FRST 307 – Biotic Disturbances

Course Outline – Fall 2017


Instructors: Dr. Richard Hamelin Dr. Allan Carroll
3032 Forest Sciences Centre 3034 Forest Sciences Centre
604-827-4441 604-822-3360
TAs: Mr. Stan Pokorny Ms. Kiah Allen
3003 Forest Sciences Centre 3033 Forest Sciences Centre


The objective of this course is to provide students with a biological basis for recognizing, diagnosing, and managing diseases and insects affecting forests and forest resources. Students will become familiar with the roles that insects and diseases play in natural ecosystem processes such as gap formation, nutrient cycling, and succession, as well as the challenges these biotic agents pose to sustainable management. The general principles of plant pathology, entomology, and pest management are introduced, followed by descriptions of the specific insects and disease agents involved.


Specifically, students will learn to:

  • recognize and identify the major tree diseases and insects of the forests of the Pacific Northwest and to assess their actual or potential impacts on various forest resources;
  • recognize and interpret insect and disease signs and symptoms of forest and shade trees around the world, with emphasis on boreal and temperate forests;
  • understand the biology of some of the important forest insects and diseases of western North America, and consider the potential for climate change to affect pest biology and impacts;
  • integrate forest pathology and entomology considerations appropriately into forest management plans.


Lectures:  Monday, Wednesday and Friday at 11:00 to noon, MacLeod 202


Section 1 – Thursday 14:00 to 16:00, room FSC 1310
Section 2 – Thursday 16:00 to 18:00, room FSC 1310
Section 3 – Wednesday 15:00 to 17:00, room FSC 1310



Midterm 30
Lab project 10
Lab exam 20
Final exam 40
Total 100


To pass the course students must obtain at least 50 % overall. Students who miss an exam or are unable to complete an assignment by the due date must contact the Instructor at the earliest possible date to determine whether a suitable accommodation can be made. Failure to do so will result in a grade of zero.


Lecture material:

Lecture notes will be posted on the course web site at least one hour before each lecture. Please note that while the posted lecture notes will be comprehensive, they will not necessarily capture all of the information delivered verbally by the Instructor for which students will be responsible during exams.


Useful Reference Material
Although there is no required textbook, there are a quite a number of sources of reference material that will be useful to students; particularly for the laboratory portion of the course. Sources of useful material are listed below:




  • Edmonds, R.L., Agee, J.K. and Gara R.I. 2011. Forest Health and Protection. Second Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York.
  • Coulson, R.N. and Witter, J.A. 1984. Forest Entomology: Ecology and Management. Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • Berryman, A.A. 1986. Forest Insects: Principles and Practice of Population Management. Plenum Press, New York and London. 1986.
  • Speight, M.R. and Wainhouse, D. 1989. Ecology and Management of Forest Insects. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Manion, P.D. 1991. Tree Disease Concepts. 2nd Edition. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
  • Agrios, G.N. 1988. Plant Pathology. 3rd Edition. Academic Press, New York.


Handbooks and Field Guides


These resources are useful for identification of specific biotic agents in western forests, and often provide short discussions of biology and management. All are available from the MacMillan Library. Most can be obtained free of charge by writing to the relevant agencies.

  • Henigman, J., Ebata, T., Allen, E., Holt, J. and Pollard, A. (editors) 1999. Field Guide to Forest Damage in British Columbia. BC Ministry of Forests and Canadian Forest Service Joint Publication No. 17. 348 p.
  • Allen, E., Morrison, D. and Wallis, G. 1996. Common tree diseases of British Columbia. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. 178 p.
  • Hiratsuka, Y. 1987. Forest Tree Diseases of the Prairie Provinces. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Information Report NOR-X-286, Edmonton, AB. 126 p.

Internet Resources: (Canadian Forest Service pest leaflets) (Field Guide to Forest Damage in BC) (Forest and Shade Tree Pathology) (forestry-related images, including many insects/diseases)


FORESTRY 307 – Biotic Disturbance

Lecture/Lab schedule

Wk Lectures Labs
1 Sept. 6 Introduction/course outline AC/RH Week 1 No lab
         8 Forest Health and biotic agents AC/RH
2          11 Biotic agent diagnoses  AC/RH
         13 Introduction to fungi RH Week 2 Field Trip UBC Farm AC/RH/
         15 Introduction to insects AC SP/KA
3          18 Tree disease epidemiology RH
         20 Population dynamics of insects AC Week 3 Insect identification SP/KA
         22 Tree defenses against insects AC
4          25 Tree defence against pathogens RH
         27 Root diseases RH Week 4 Root diseases SP/KA
         29 Wood decay RH
5 Oct.  2 Root, lower-stem & wood boring insects AC
         4 Bark beetles I AC Week 5 Root insects, wood borers SP/KA
         6 Bark beetles II AC
6          9 Holiday
         11 Cankers RH Week 6 Bark and ambrosia beetles SP/KA
         13 Stains RH
7          16 Phytosanitary issues RH
         18 Midterm AC/RH Week 7 Decay, cankers SP/KA
         20 Defoliators I AC
8          23 Defoliators II AC
         25 Shoot, seed and cone insects AC Week 8 Defoliators and sawflies SP/KA
         27 Rusts RH
9          30 Foliar diseases and wilts RH
Nov. 1 Mistletoes RH Week 9 Rusts, foliar diseases SP/KA
         3 Sucking/galling insects AC
10          6 Nursery diseases RH
         8 Integrated pest mgmt I AC Week 10 Sucking, galling, shoots SP/KA
         10 Integrated pest mgmt II AC
11          13 Holiday AC
         15 Disease management RH Week 11 Mistletoes SP/KA
         17 Forest genomics RH
12          20 Global change: invasives AC
         22 Global change vs insects AC Week 12 Biotic disturbance project SP/KA
         24 Global change vs pathogens RH
13          27 Disturbance synergies: Sirex RH
         29 Disturbance synergies: WBP AC Week 13 Lab exam AC/RH/
Dec.  1 Review AC/RH SP/KA